能源与水资源

  • 通过改造水行业和发掘电机系统的潜力,将能源效率转换为世界能源

  • 能源需要水,水也需要能源。

    能源和水的相互依赖性和全球对二者日益增长的需求,密切影响着经济增长、环境可持续性和我们的未来。据国际能源署“2016 年世界能源展望”报告预测,水行业消耗全球4%的电力,预计到2040年,这一数字将翻一番。根据报告,水行业是市政开支中最大的一项,占比高达30 - 50%。

    工业化的发展将今天的挑战转变为明天的成就。将水行业能源中和的技术已经成熟,丹麦有望在几年内实现这一目标。好消息是,在减少能源消耗的同时还能减少水资源的浪费,就像使用更节能的水分配系统自动帮助减少漏水。

  • 挑战

    近几十年来,对水的需求增长速度超过人口增长的两倍多。

    在今后的 25 年内对水的需求将持续上升,到 2040 年,城市水的需求量将上升 16%。

    到2040年,预计约 20% 的国家都会遇到供水严重不足的问题。

    目前,水资源占全球电力消耗的4%左右——相当于整个俄罗斯的电力消耗。

    不同地区水行业的耗电量不相同。中国的供水行业耗电量最大(占电力消费总量的五分之一左右),美国则紧随其后,位居第二。

    虽然经合组织国家的工业和城市用水只占电力消耗的30%,但这些国家用水的总电力消耗约占全球的60%。

  • 解除供水行业与能源使用之间的关系

    减少能源消耗的技术已经存在于水循环的各个阶段——从生产和分配到污水抽取和处理。不仅可以使水循环更高效,它还具有实际产生能源的潜力。通过优化水分配系统的能耗,自动减少了漏水问题。

  • 改变游戏规则的方法:将城市最大的能源用户转化为能源生产者。

    位于丹麦第二大城市奥尔胡斯的马萨里斯堡居民区,实现了100%的能源剩余生产——通过最大限度地减少整个水循环的消耗,并且最大限度地利用废水设施进行能源生产。这一过程无需向污水设施额外添加碳或使用任何其他外部能源即可实现。
  • 政策制定者能采取什么措施?

    当前,巴黎协议已生效,这是采取行动的最佳时间

    根据“世界能源展望”报告,政策制定者可以通过采取一系列的政策措施,推动水行业使用更高效的技术,从而在全世界范围实现显著的能源改善。总的来说,能源节约的潜力约等于270太瓦时(TWh),到2040年还将产生额外的70TWh的电力——相当于约70个大型(800MW)燃煤发电站。
  • 不仅仅是供水行业

    通过对系统效率的重新思考,进行未来的行业设计

    《世界能源展望》还强调了对电机系统提高能效的紧迫需求,电机系统会消耗全球一半以上的电力。为此,决策者和商界领袖需要显著减少所有行业对能源的依赖,这将对我们的经济和气候带来显著地积极影响。
  • 在水利部门以外的区域夯实基础

    根据《世界能源展望》,电机系统的电力消耗量占全球总量的 50% 以上,近 30% 被工业系统消耗。

    到 2040 年,在全球范围内来自工业电机能源服务的总需求预计将翻一番,约有一半的增长来自中国和印度。

    安装一台变频调速器可使带有可变负荷的标准电机系统效率提高达 15 - 35%。

    平均回报期极少超过三到四年,因此这样的投资是一种极具成本效益的措施。

    电机系统通过采取一系列的措施,包括对电机系统更严格的监管力度,更多的使用变频器,以及更重要的是,对系统范围内其他部分采取能效措施,可以平均节省高达40%的能量消耗。这些行动将促使到2040年能够实现节省8%的全球电力消耗。

  • 工程能源联盟

    了解更多关于EurActiv研究所组织的活动,了解电机和水处理系统如何帮助您实现政策目标。
  • 2016年世界能源展望

    世界最权威的能源市场分析预测认为,高效的电机系统具有巨大的市场潜力,同时非常看好水行业的能源平衡前景。
  • 未来展望:将水摆到智能城市的重中之重

    一些城市总能耗占全球四分之三,二氧化碳排放占全球的 80%,将水作为能源至关重要。

    水循环可集成到智能能源系统中 — 将电力、供热、制冷与供水和污水处理相结合 — 提供平衡电源与能耗的灵活性。受数字化和物联网方法驱动,污水处理厂(如Aarhus 市的一家处理厂)能够推动能效,并产生具有成本效益的可再生能源,帮助世界各城市实现零碳目标。

  • 奥胡斯市长解释了城市如何实现雄心勃勃的可持续发展目标

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